Article: article from journal or magazin.
Protein-binding site at the immunoglobulin mu membrane polyadenylylation signal: possible role in transcription termination.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
mRNAs specifying immunoglobulin mu and delta heavy chains are encoded by a single large, complex transcription unit (mu + delta gene). The transcriptional activity of delta gene segments in terminally differentiated, IgM-secreting B lymphocytes is 10-20 times lower than in earlier B-lineage cells expressing delta mRNA. We find that transcription of the mu + delta gene in IgM-secreting murine myeloma cells terminates within a region of 500-1000 nucleotides immediately following the mu membrane (mu m) polyadenylylation site. Transcription decreases only minimally through this region in murine cell lines representative of earlier stages in B-cell development. A DNA fragment containing the mu m polyadenylylation signal gives protein-DNA complexes with different mobilities in gel retardation assays with nuclear extracts from myeloma cells than with nuclear extracts from earlier B-lineage cells. However, using a recently developed "footprinting" procedure in which protein-DNA complexes resolved in gel retardation assays are subjected to nucleolytic cleavage while still in the polyacrylamide gel, we find that the DNA sequences protected by factors from the two cell types are indistinguishable. The factor-binding site on the DNA is located 5' of the mu m polyadenylylation signal AATAAA and includes the 15-nucleotide-long A + T-rich palindrome CTGTAAACAAATGTC. This type of palindromic binding site exhibits orientation-dependent activity consistent with the reported properties of polymerase II termination signals. This binding site is followed by two sets of directly repeated DNA sequences with different helical conformation as revealed by their reactivity with the chemical nuclease 1,10-phenanthroline-copper. The close proximity of these features to the signals for mu m mRNA processing may reflect a linkage of the processes of developmentally regulated mu m polyadenylylation and transcription termination.
B-Lymphocytes/cytology, B-Lymphocytes/physiology, Base Sequence, Cell Differentiation, DNA-Binding Proteins/physiology, Deoxyribonucleases/diagnostic use, Gene Expression Regulation, Genes, Immunoglobulin, Genes, Regulator, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics, Immunoglobulin delta-Chains/genetics, Immunoglobulin mu-Chains/genetics, Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Conformation, Poly A/genetics, Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics, Terminator Regions, Genetic, Transcription Factors/physiology, Transcription, Genetic
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