Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Imaging EEG synchronization in schizophrenia patients with S-estimator
Recently a new measure of the cooperative behavior of simultaneous time series was introduced (Carmeli et al. NeuroImage 2005). This measure called S-estimator is defined from the embedding dimension in a state space. S-estimator quantifies the amount of synchronization within a data set by comparing the actual dimensionality of the set with the expected full dimensionality of the asynchronous set. It has the advantage of being a multivariate measure over traditionally used in systems neuroscience bivariate measures of synchronization. Multivariate measures of synchronization are of particular interest for applications in the field of modern multichannel EEG research, since they easily allow mapping of local and/or regional synchronization and are compatible with other imaging techniques. We applied Sestimator to the analysis of EEG synchronization in schizophrenia patients vs. matched controls. The whole-head mapping with S-estimator revealed a specific pattern of local synchronization in schizophrenia patients. The differences in the landscape of synchronization included decreased local synchronization in the territories over occipital and midline areas and increased synchronization over temporal areas. In frontal areas, the S-estimator revealed a tendency for an asymmetry: decreased S-values over the left hemisphere were adjacent to increased values over the right hemisphere. Separate calculations showed reproducibility of this pattern across the main EEG frequency bands. The maintenance of the same synchronization landscape across EEG frequencies probably implies the structural changes in the cortical circuitry of schizophrenia patients. These changes are regionally specific and suggest that schizophrenia is a misconnectivity rather than hypo- or hyper-connectivity disorder.
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