Article: article from journal or magazin.
Immune response to mouse mammary tumor virus in mice lacking the alpha/beta interferon or the gamma interferon receptor.
Journal of Virology
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a retrovirus which induces a strong immune response and a dramatic increase in the number of infected cells through the expression of a superantigen (SAg). Many cytokines are likely to be involved in the interaction between MMTV and the immune system. In particular, alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) exert many antiviral and immunomodulatory activities and play a critical role in other viral infections. In this study, we have investigated the importance of interferons during MMTV infection by using mice with a disrupted IFN-alpha/beta or IFN-gamma receptor gene. We found that the SAg response to MMTV was not modified in IFN-alpha/betaR(0/0) and IFN-gammaR(0/0) mice. This was true both for the early expansion of B and T cells induced by the SAg and for the deletion of SAg-reactive cells at later stages of the infection. In addition, no increase in the amount of proviral DNA was detected in tissues of IFN-alpha/betaR(0/0) and IFN-gammaR(0/0) mice, suggesting that interferons are not essential antiviral defense mechanisms during MMTV infection. In contrast, IFN-gammaR(0/0) mice had increased amounts of IL-4 mRNA and an altered usage of immunoglobulin isotypes with a reduced frequency of IgG2a- and IgG3-producing cells. This was associated with lower titers of virus-specific antibodies in serum early after infection, although efficient titers were reached later.
Animals, Antibodies, Viral/immunology, Antigens, Viral/immunology, Crosses, Genetic, DNA, Viral, Female, Gene Deletion, Gene Expression, Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis, Interferon-gamma/genetics, Interleukin-4/biosynthesis, Interleukin-4/genetics, Male, Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse/immunology, Membrane Proteins, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Proviruses/genetics, Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta, Receptors, Interferon/genetics, Receptors, Interferon/immunology, Retroviridae Infections/immunology, Superantigens/immunology, Time Factors, Tumor Virus Infections/immunology
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