Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
Ventricularisation of the left atrium: a rare cause of left ventricular dysfunction in a patient with mitral valve prolapse
Title of the conference
Assemblée annuelle commune de la Société Suisse de Cardiologie (SSC) et de la Société Suisse de Chirurgie Cardiaque et Vasculaire Thoracique (SSCC)
Lugano, 12 -14 Juni 2013
Case: A 11 yo girl with Marfan syndrome was referred to cardiac MR (CMR) to measure the size of her thoracic aorta. She had a typical phenotype with arachnodactyly, abnormally long arms, and was tall and slim (156 cm, 28 kg, body mass index 11,5 kg/m2). She complained of no symptoms. Cardiac auscultation revealed a prominent mid-systolic click and an end-systolic murmur at the apex. A recent echocardiogram showed a moderately dilated left ventricle with normal function and a mitral valve prolapse with moderate mitral valve regurgitation. CMR showed a dilatation of the aortic root (38 mm, Z-score 8.9) and a severe prolapse of the mitral valve with regurgitation. The ventricular cavity was moderately dilated (116 ml/m2) and its contraction was hyperdynamic (stroke volume (SV): 97 ml; LVEF 72%, with the LV volumes measured by modified Simpson method from the apex to the mitral annulus). In this patient however, the mitral prolapse was characterized by a severe backward movement of the valve toward the left atrium (LA) in systole and the dyskinetic movement of the atrioventricular plane caused a ventricularisation of a part of the LA in systole (Figure). This resulted in a significant reduction of LVEF: more than ¼ of the apparent SV was displaced backwards into the ventricularized LA volume, reducing the effective LVEF to 51% (effective SV 69ml). Moreover, by flow measurement, the SV across the ascending aorta was 30 ml (cardiac index 2.0 l/min/m2) allowing the calculation of a regurgitant fraction across the mitral valve of 56%, which was diagnostic for a severe mitral valve insufficiency. Conclusion: This case illustrates the phenomenon of a ventricularisation of the LA where the severe prolapse gives the illusion of a higher attachement of the mitral leaflets within the atrial wall. Besides the severe mitral regurgitation, this paradoxical backwards movement of the valve causes an intraventricular unloading during systole reducing the apparent LVEF of 72% to an effective LVEF of only 51%. In addition, forward flow fraction is only 22% after accounting for the regurgitant volume, as well. This combined involvement of the mitral valve could explain the discrepancy between a low output state and an apparently hyperdynamic LV contraction. Due to its ability to precisely measure flows and volumes, CMR is particularly suited to detect this phenomenon and to quantify its impact on the LV pump function.
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