Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Role of defensins and cathelicidin LL37 in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory diseases.
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Publication types: Journal Article ; Review
Defensins and cathelicidins are anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) that act as natural antibiotics and are part of the innate immune defence in many species. We consider human defensins and LL37, the only human member of the cathelicidin family. In particular, we refer to the human alpha-defensins called human neutrophil peptides (HNP1 through 4), which are produced by neutrophils, HD5 and HD6, mainly expressed in Paneth cells of intestine, the human beta-defensins HBD1, HBD2 and HBD3, synthesized by epithelial cells and LL37, which is located in granulocytes, but is also produced by epithelial cells of the skin, lungs, and gut. In the last years, the study of AMPs activity and regulation has allowed to understand the important role of these peptides not only in the innate defence mechanisms against bacteria, viruses, fungi, but also in the regulation of immune cell activation and migration. Complementary studies have disclosed a role for AMPs in modulating many physiological processes that involve non-immune cells, such as activation of wound healing, angiogenesis, cartilage remodeling. Due to the pleiotropic tasks of these peptides, many of them are now being discovered to contribute to immune pathology of chronic diseases that affect skin, gut, joints; this is supported by many examples of immune-mediated pathologies in which their expression is disregulated. In this article we review the current literature that suggests a role for human defensins and LL37 in pathogenic mechanisms of several chronic diseases that are considered of auto-immune or auto-inflammatory origin.
Autoimmune Diseases/etiology, Autoimmune Diseases/immunology, Cathelicidins/immunology, Cathelicidins/physiology, Defensins/immunology, Defensins/physiology, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Inflammation/etiology, Inflammation/immunology
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