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Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of conformationally constrained analogues of N,N'-diaryl- and N-aryl-N-aralkylguanidines as potent inhibitors of neuronal Na+ channels
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Journal Article --- Old month value: Jul 30
In the present investigation, the rationale for the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of potent inhibitors of neuronal Na+ channels is described. N,N'-diaryl- and N-aryl-N-aralkylguanidine templates were locked in conformations mimicking the permissible conformations of the flexible diarylguanidinium ion (AS+, AA+, SS+). The resulting set of constrained guanidines termed "lockamers" (cyclophane, quinazoline, aminopyrimidazolines, aminoimidazolines, azocino- and tetrahydroquinolinocarboximidamides) was examined for neuronal Na+ channel blockade properties. Inhibition of [14C]guanidinium ion influx in CHO cells expressing type IIA Na+ channels showed that the aminopyrimidazoline 9b and aminoimidazoline 9d, compounds proposed to lock the N,N'-diarylguanidinium in an SS+ conformation, were the most potent Na+ channel blockers with IC50's of 0.06 microM, a value 17 times lower than that of the parent flexible compound 18d. The rest of the restricted analogues with 4-p-alkyl substituents retained potency with IC50 values ranging between 0.46 and 2.9 microM. Evaluation in a synaptosomal 45Ca2+ influx assay showed that 9b did not exhibit high selectivity for neuronal Na+ vs Ca2+ channels. The retention of significant neuronal Na+ blockade in all types of semirigid conformers gives evidence for a multiple mode of binding in this class of compounds and can possibly be attributed to a poor structural specificity of the site(s) of action. Compound 9b was also found to be the most active compound in vivo based on the high level of inhibition of seizures exhibited in the DBA/2 mouse model. The pKa value of 9b indicates that 9b binds to the channel in its protonated form, and log D vs pH measurements suggest that ion-pair partitioning contributes to membrane transport. This compound stands out as an interesting lead for further development of neurotherapeutic agents.
Animals Anticonvulsants/chemical synthesis/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology Biological Transport Brain/drug effects/metabolism/ultrastructure CHO Cells Calcium/metabolism Calcium Channel Blockers/chemical synthesis/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology Calcium Channels/drug effects Cricetinae *Drug Design Female Guanidine/metabolism *Imidazoles/chemical synthesis/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology Male Mice Mice, Inbred DBA Molecular Conformation Neurons/*drug effects/metabolism *Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology Rats Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism Seizures/prevention & control *Sodium Channel Blockers Sodium Channels/biosynthesis Structure-Activity Relationship Synaptosomes/drug effects/metabolism
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