Article: article from journal or magazin.
LC-MS method development and comparison of sampling materials for the analysis of organic gunshot residues
Forensic Science International
Special Issue on the 7th European Academy of Forensic Science Conference
This study aimed at comparing the efficiency of various sampling materials for the collection and subsequent analysis of organic gunshot residues (OGSR). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that sampling devices were investigated in detail for further quantitation of OGSR by LC-MS. Seven sampling materials, namely two "swab"-type and five "stub"-type collection materials, were tested. The investigation started with the development of a simple and robust LC-MS method able to separate and quantify molecules typically found in gunpowders, such as diphenylamine or ethylcentralite. The evaluation of sampling materials was then systematically carried out by first analysing blank extracts of the materials to check for potential interferences and determining matrix effects. Based on these results, the best four materials, namely cotton buds, polyester swabs, a tape from 3M and PTFE were compared in terms of collection efficiency during shooting experiments using a set of 9 mm Luger ammunition. It was found that the tape was capable of recovering the highest amounts of OGSR. As tape-lifting is the technique currently used in routine for inorganic GSR, OGSR analysis might be implemented without modifying IGSR sampling and analysis procedure.
forensic science, firearm, organic gunshot residue, LCMS, sampling devices
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