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Emotional behavior in acute stroke: the Lausanne emotion in stroke study.
Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology
OBJECTIVE: To study emotional behaviors in an acute stroke population. BACKGROUND: Alterations in emotional behavior after stroke have been recently recognized, but little attention has been paid to these changes in the very acute phase of stroke. METHODS: Adult patients presenting with acute stroke were prospectively recruited and studied. We validated the Emotional Behavior Index (EBI), a 38-item scale designed to evaluate behavioral aspects of sadness, aggressiveness, disinhibition, adaptation, passivity, indifference, and denial. Clinical, historical, and imaging (computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging) data were obtained on each subject through our Stroke Registry. Statistical analysis was performed with both univariate and multivariate tests. RESULTS: Of the 254 patients, 40% showed sadness, 49% passivity, 17% aggressiveness, 53% indifference, 76% disinhibition, 18% lack of adaptation, and 44% denial reactions. Several significant correlations were identified. Sadness was correlated with a personal history of alcohol abuse (r = P < 0.037), female gender (r = P < 0.028), and hemorrhagic nature of the stroke (r = P < 0.063). Aggressiveness was correlated with a personal history of depression (r = P < 0.046) and hemorrhage (r = P < 0.06). Denial was correlated with male gender (r = P < 0.035) and hemorrhagic lesions (r = P < 0.05). Emotional behavior did not correlate with either neurologic impairment or lesion localization, but there was an association between hemorrhage and aggressive behavior (P < 0.001), lack of adaptation (r = P < 0.015), indifference (r = P < 0.018), and denial (r = P < 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Systematic observations of acute emotional behaviors after stroke suggest that emotional alterations are independent of mood and physical status and should be considered as a separate consequence of stroke.
Acute Disease, Affective Symptoms, Aged, Aggression, Depression, Female, Humans, Male, Prospective Studies, Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Stroke
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