Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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IDH1/IDH2 mutations predict survival in glioma and AML
Title of the conference
5th European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), National Cancer Institute (NCI), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Annual Meeting on Molecular Markers in Cancer
Brussels, Belgium, October 27-29, 2011
European Journal of Cancer
Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase family genes 1 or 2 (IDH1/2) have been discovered by high through put sequencing approaches inglioma and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and related myeloproliferativeneoplasms. In both diseases, the discovery of IDH mutations has identifieda prognostically new subtype with distinct pathogenetic evolution. Ingliomas mutations are mostly found in IDH1 (>90%). They are infrequent inprimary glioblastoma (GBM) (<10%), but common in secondary GBM thatevolve from lower grade glioma (60−90%). Mutations in IDH1 precede p53mutations or 1p/19q co-deletions in sporadic low grade glioma, hence arean early evant. Co-deletions of 1p/19q, characteristic for oligodenroglioma,are highly associated with IDH1/2 mutations, while they are mutuallyexclusive with EGFR amplifications, a hall mark of primary GBM. IDH1 or 2mutations are associated with younger patient age, but absent in childhoodgliomas, and have a better prognosis that seems to be consistent in gradeII through IV gliomas. In myeloid malignancies mutations are more likelyin IDH2 and are found in de novo and secondary AML (12−18%) andpre-leukemic clonal malignancies (5% chronic; 20% transformed). IDH1/2mutations are strongly associated with NPM1 mutations that are found in30% of novo cytogenetically normal AML. In CN-AML with mutated NPM1,without FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) IDH mutations constitutean adverse prognostic factor. Mutations in the metabolic enzymes IDH1 or2 result in a neomorphic reaction, generating high levels of the metabolite2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). IDH mutations are mutually exclusive with TET2mutations in myeloid malignancies that led to the discovery that high levelsof 2-HG inhibit the a-KG dependent dioxygenase TET2. TET2 is involved inepigenetic regulation and mediates demethylation of DNA. This mechanismis in accordance with the association of a methylator phenotype with loss offunction of TET2 by mutation or indirectly by mutation of IDH1/2 in myeloidmalignancies and gliomas, respectively.Metabolism meets Epigenetics. These discoveries will have importantclinical implications: IDH1/2 mutants may serve as unique targets fortherapy. Further, the high concentrations of the onco-metabolite 2-HGgenerated by IDH1/2 mutants, may serve as biomarker in the serum ofpatients with myeloid malignancies and may be amenable by magneticresonance spectroscopy in glioma patients.
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