Article: article from journal or magazin.
Effects of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of methadone
Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't - Publication Status: ppublish
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is the main CYP isozyme involved in methadone metabolism. We investigated the influence of grapefruit juice, which contains inhibitors of intestinal CYP3A, on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of methadone. METHODS: For 5 days, 8 patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment received 200 mL water or grapefruit juice 30 minutes before and again together with their daily dose of methadone. Blood sampling for R-, S-, and R,S-methadone plasma determination was performed over a 24-hour period. CYP3A activity was determined by measuring the plasma 1'-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam ratio. RESULTS: A decrease in the midazolam ratio was measured in all patients after grapefruit juice (mean +/- SD before grapefruit juice, 9.3 +/- 5.9; mean +/- SD after grapefruit juice, 3.9 +/- 1.2; P <.05). Grapefruit juice led to a mean 17% increase in the area under the curve extrapolated to 24 hours for both enantiomers of methadone (range, 3% to 29% [P <.005]; range, -4% to 37% [P <.05]; and range, 1% to 32% [P <.01]; for R-, S-, and R,S-methadone, respectively). A similar increase in peak level and decrease in apparent clearance were measured with grapefruit juice, whereas time to peak level, terminal half-life, and apparent volume during the terminal phase of R-, S-, and R,S-methadone were not affected by grapefruit juice. No symptom of overmedication was either detected by the clinical staff or reported by the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Grapefruit juice administration is associated with a modest increase in methadone bioavailability, which is not expected to endanger patients. However, it cannot be excluded that a much stronger effect may occur in some patients, and thus grapefruit juice intake is not recommended during methadone maintenance treatment, in particular in patients initiating such a treatment.
Adult, Area Under Curve, Beverages, Citrus paradisi, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, Female, Humans, Male, Metabolic Clearance Rate, Methadone, Middle Aged, Stereoisomerism
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