Article: article from journal or magazin.
Experimental calcium oxalate crystal production and dissolution by selected wood rot fungi.
International Biodetermination and Biodegradation
Twenty-six species of white-rotting Agaricomycotina fungi (Basidiomycota) were screened for their ability to produce calcium-oxalate (CaOx) crystals in vitro. Most were able to produce CaOx crystals in malt agar medium in the absence of additional calcium. In the same medium enriched with Ca2+, all the species produced CaOx crystals (weddellite or whewellite). Hyphae of four species (Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus ciliatus, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, and Trametes versicolor) were found coated with crystals (weddellite/whewellite). The production of CaOx crystals during the growth phase was confirmed by an investigation of the production kinetics for six of the species considered in the initial screening (Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. cinnabarinus, Trametes suaveolens, and T. versicolor). However, the crystals produced during the growth phase disappeared from the medium over time in four of the six species (P. citrinopileatus, P. eryngii, P. cinnabarinus, and T. suaveolens). For P. cinnabarinus, the disappearance of the crystals was correlated with a decrease in the total oxalate concentration measured in the medium from 0.65 μg mm−2 (at the maximum accumulation rate) to 0.30 μg mm−2. The decrease in the CaOx concentration was correlated with a change in mycelia morphology. The oxalate dissolution capability of all the species was also tested in a medium containing calcium oxalate as the sole source of carbon (modified Schlegel medium). Three species (Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus tuberregium, and P. ciliatus) presented a dissolution halo around the growth zone. This study shows that CaOx crystal production is a widespread phenomenon in white-rot fungi, and that an excess of Ca2+ can enhance CaOx crystal production. In addition, it shows that some white-rot fungal species are capable of dissolving CaOx crystals after growth has ceased. These results highlight a diversity of responses around the production or dissolution of calcium oxalate in white-rot fungi and reveal an unexpected potential importance of fungi on the oxalate cycle in the environment.
Calcium oxalate, Oxalate-carbonate pathway, Oxalic acid, Wood-rot fungi
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