Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Immune system's role in viral encephalitis.
Publication types: Publication Status: ppublish
Viral infections can be a major thread for the central nervous system (CNS), therefore, the immune system must be able to mount a highly proportionate immune response, not too weak, which would allow the virus to proliferate, but not too strong either, to avoid collateral damages. Here, we aim at reviewing the immunological mechanisms involved in the host defense in viral CNS infections. First, we review the specificities of the innate as well as the adaptive immune responses in the CNS, using several examples of various viral encephalitis. Then, we focus on three different modes of interactions between viruses and immune responses, namely human Herpes virus-1 encephalitis with the defect in innate immune response which favors this disease; JC virus-caused progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and the crucial role of adaptive immune response in this example; and finally, HIV infection with the accompanying low grade chronic inflammation in the CNS in some patients, which may be an explanation for the presence of cognitive disorders, even in some well-treated HIV-infected patients. We also emphasize that, although the immune response is generally associated with viral replication control and limited cellular death, an exaggerated inflammatory reaction can lead to tissue damage and can be detrimental for the host, a feature of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We will briefly address the indication of steroids in this situation.
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