Article: article from journal or magazin.
The renin-angiotensin system in refractory heart failure: clinical, hemodynamic and hormonal effects of captopril and enalapril.
European Heart Journal
Studies using a competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II (saralasin) or converting enzyme inhibitors (teprotide, captopril, enalapril) have established that the renin-angiotensin system participates in the control of vascular tone in congestive heart failure both in experimental settings and in patients. In man, the marked decrease in left ventricular filling pressure and the variable increase in stroke volume induced by renin-angiotensin blockade suggests that angiotensin II actively constricts venous as well as arteriolar vascular beds. Captopril, in doses of 25 to 150 mg p.o. TID, maintains its efficacy during chronic administration with persistent clinical and hemodynamic improvement as well as increased exercise tolerance. In our experience, enalapril, 10 mg p.o., improves cardiac function within 4 to 6 h as reflected by a 30% decrease in left ventricular filling pressure, a 28% increase in stroke volume in the face of unchanged heart rate. Clinical improvement, enhanced exercise tolerance and characteristic hormonal responses suggest that enalapril also maintains its efficacy during long-term treatment. Chronic angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibition appears to be a major advance in the treatment of patients with severe congestive heart failure, refractory to digitalis and diuretics.
Aldosterone, Angiotensin II, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Captopril, Dipeptides, Enalapril, Epinephrine, Heart Failure, Hemodynamics, Humans, Norepinephrine, Proline, Renin, Renin-Angiotensin System
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