Article: article from journal or magazin.
Lipoprotein(a) in the nephrotic syndrome: molecular analysis of lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein(a) fragments in plasma and urine.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Publication Status: ppublish
Plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), an atherogenic particle, are elevated in kidney disease, which suggests a role of this organ in the metabolism of Lp(a). Additional evidence for a role of the kidney in the clearance of Lp(a) is provided by the fact that circulating N-terminal fragments of apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) are processed and eliminated by the renal route. To further understand the mechanism underlying such renal excretion, the levels of apo(a) fragments in plasma and urine relative to plasma Lp(a) levels were determined in patients with nephrotic syndrome (n = 15). In plasma, the absolute (24.7 +/- 20.4 versus 2.16 +/- 2.99 microg/ml, P < 0.0001) as well as the relative amounts of apo(a) fragments (4.6 +/-3.4% versus 2.1 +/- 3.3% of total Lp(a), P < 0.0001) were significantly elevated in nephrotic patients compared with a control, normolipidemic population. In addition, urinary apo(a) excretion in patients with nephrotic syndrome was markedly elevated compared with that in control subjects (578 +/- 622 versus 27.7 +/- 44 ng/ml per mg creatinine, P < 0.001). However, the fractional catabolic rates of apo(a) fragments were similar in both groups (0.68 +/- 0.67% and 0.62 +/- 0.47% in nephrotic and control subjects, respectively), suggesting that increased plasma concentrations of apo(a) fragments in nephrotic subjects are more dependent on the rate of synthesis rather than on the catabolic rate. Molecular analysis of apo(a) immunoreactive material in urine revealed that the patterns of apo(a) fragments in nephrotic patients were distinct from those of control subjects. Full-length apo(a), large N-terminal apo(a) fragments similar in size to those present in plasma, as well as C-terminal fragments of apo(a) were detected in urine from nephrotic patients but not in urine from controls. All of these apo(a) forms were in addition to smaller N-terminal apo(a) fragments present in normal urine. This study also demonstrated the presence of Lp(a) in urine from nephrotic patients by ultracentrifugal fractionation. These data suggest that in nephrotic syndrome, Lp(a) and large fragments of apo(a) are passively filtered by the kidney through the glomerulus, whereas smaller apo(a) fragments are secreted into the urine.
Adult, Apolipoproteins/blood, Apolipoproteins/urine, Apoprotein(a), Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Female, Humans, Immunoblotting, Lipids/blood, Lipoprotein(a)/blood, Lipoprotein(a)/urine, Male, Middle Aged, Nephrotic Syndrome/blood, Nephrotic Syndrome/urine, Peptide Fragments/blood, Peptide Fragments/urine, Ultracentrifugation
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