Article: article from journal or magazin.
Molecular docking of competitive phosphodiesterase inhibitors.
Mammalian phosphodiesterases types 3 and 4 (PDE3 and PDE4) hydrolyze cAMP and are essential for the regulation of this intracellular second messenger. These enzymes share structural and biochemical similarities, but each can be distinguished by its sensitivity to isoenzyme-specific, substrate-competitive inhibitors. We present a model configuration for the PDE4 substrate (cAMP) and a PDE4-specific inhibitor (rolipram) within the active site of the enzyme. The docked models were also used to examine the structural consequences of mutations that confer resistance to rolipram and other PDE4-specific inhibitors. The proposed rolipram-binding configuration is consistent with the substrate-competitive nature of inhibition and also provides a structural basis for the observed specificity of binding to the R- versus S-enantiomer. For mutations that render the enzyme rolipram-insensitive, there was generally an inverse relationship between the magnitude of the drug resistance and the distance of the altered residue from the predicted binding site. We observed a direct correlation between the net loss of protein residue interactions (van der Waals contacts and hydrogen bond interactions) and the degree of rolipram resistance. The positions of several drug sensitivity-determinant residues define a surface leading to the substrate- and drug-binding sites, suggesting a possible approach channel leading to the enzyme active site. The binding of other PDE4 inhibitors (high- and low-affinity) was also modeled and used to predict the involvement of residues that were not previously implicated in pharmacological interactions.
3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases/chemistry, 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases/drug effects, Cyclic AMP/metabolism, Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4, Drug Design, Humans, Models, Molecular, Mutation, Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology, Protein Conformation, Rolipram/pharmacology
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