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Efficacy of trovafloxacin in treatment of experimental staphylococcal or streptococcal endocarditis.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
The efficacy of trovafloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and viridans group streptococci was investigated in vitro and in an experimental model of endocarditis. The MICs at which trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin inhibited 90% of clinical isolates of such bacteria (MIC90s) were (i) 0.03 and 2 mg/liter, respectively, for 30 ciprofloxacin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, (ii) 32 and 128 mg/liter, respectively, for 20 ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus isolates, and (iii) 0.25 and 8 mg/liter, respectively, for 28 viridans group streptococci. Rats with aortic vegetations were infected with either of two ciprofloxacin-susceptible but methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains (strains COL and P8), one penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus sanguis strain, or one penicillin-resistant Streptococcus mitis strain. Rats were treated for 3 or 5 days with doses that resulted in kinetics that simulated those achieved in humans with trovafloxacin (200 mg orally once a day), ciprofloxacin (750 mg orally twice a day), vancomycin (1 g intravenously twice a day), or ceftriaxone (2 g intravenously once a day). Against the staphylococci, the activities of both trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin were equivalent to that of vancomycin, and treatment of endocarditis with these drugs was successful (P < 0.05). However, ciprofloxacin selected for resistant derivatives in vitro and in vivo, whereas trovafloxacin was 10 to 100 times less prone than ciprofloxacin to select for resistance in vitro and did not select for resistance in vivo. Against the two streptococcal isolates, trovafloxacin significantly (P < 0.05) decreased bacterial counts in the vegetations but was less effective than the control drug, ceftriaxone. Thus, a simulated oral dose of trovafloxacin (200 mg per day) was effective against ciprofloxacin-susceptible staphylococci and was less likely than ciprofloxacin to select for resistance. The simulated oral dose of trovafloxacin also had some activity against streptococcal endocarditis, but optimal treatment of infections caused by such organisms might require higher doses of the drug.
Animals, Anti-Infective Agents/blood, Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use, Blood Proteins/metabolism, Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology, Endocarditis, Subacute Bacterial/drug therapy, Endocarditis, Subacute Bacterial/microbiology, Fluoroquinolones, Methicillin Resistance, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Naphthyridines/blood, Naphthyridines/therapeutic use, Penicillin Resistance, Protein Binding, Rats, Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy, Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects, Time Factors
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