Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
High magnification cystoscopy in the primary diagnosis of bladder tumors.
Current Opinion in Urology
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tPublication Status: ppublish
Purpose of reviewIn bladder cancer, discrimination between benign and malignant tissue may remain tricky with current endoscopic tools. On the basis of our recent experience with high-magnification cystoscopy, compared with other tools such as optical coherence tomography or confocal laser endomicroscopy, it is suggested here that this discrimination may well be feasible endoscopically. The clinical potential of these systems that are being developed as complementary tools to the current endoscopic equipment is reviewed.Recent findingsAt present, white-light cystoscopy, either assisted by fluorescence cystoscopy or narrow-band imaging, is proposed for the global cystoscopic examination of bladder cancer patients. Both techniques compete to help to reduce the recurrence rate by improving exophytic tumor detection, and the extent of carcinoma in situ and high-grade dysplasia. All of which are important prognosis factors for disease progression. In addition, recent findings on neoangiogenesis that accompanies early stage bladder cancer show that this may also be an important observable switch in bladder cancerogenesis, as it is found very early in tumor development. The high magnification cystoscopy as a complementary tool to fluorescence cystoscopy allows classification of the vessel patterns on fluorescence positive sites, and thus facilitates the discrimination between cancerous and noncancerous lesions. This information may be useful to reduce the false positive rate of fluorescence cystoscopy.SummaryEmerging technologies aiming at a real-time in-situ discrimination between benign and malignant tissue during endoscopic bladder exploration is a promising development for the monitoring of bladder cancer patients.
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