Article: article from journal or magazin.
How to set up and apply reference levels in fluoroscopy at a national level.
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't - Publication Status: ppublish
A nationwide survey was launched to investigate the use of fluoroscopy and establish national reference levels (RL) for dose-intensive procedures. The 2-year investigation covered five radiology and nine cardiology departments in public hospitals and private clinics, and focused on 12 examination types: 6 diagnostic and 6 interventional. A total of 1,000 examinations was registered. Information including the fluoroscopy time (T), the number of frames (N) and the dose-area product (DAP) was provided. The data set was used to establish the distributions of T, N and the DAP and the associated RL values. The examinations were pooled to improve the statistics. A wide variation in dose and image quality in fixed geometry was observed. As an example, the skin dose rate for abdominal examinations varied in the range of 10 to 45 mGy/min for comparable image quality. A wide variability was found for several types of examinations, mainly complex ones. DAP RLs of 210, 125, 80, 240, 440 and 110 Gy cm2 were established for lower limb and iliac angiography, cerebral angiography, coronary angiography, biliary drainage and stenting, cerebral embolization and PTCA, respectively. The RL values established are compared to the data published in the literature.
Diagnostic Imaging, Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation, Fluoroscopy, Humans, Radiation Dosage, Radiography, Interventional, Radiometry, Reference Values, Skin, Switzerland
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