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Differential contribution of mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and glycolysis to region-specific oxidant stress in the anoxic-reoxygenated embryonic heart.
American Journal of Physiology
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The ability of the developing myocardium to tolerate oxidative stress during early gestation is an important issue with regard to possible detrimental consequences for the fetus. In the embryonic heart, antioxidant defences are low, whereas glycolytic flux is high. The pro- and antioxidant mechanisms and their dependency on glucose metabolism remain to be explored. Isolated hearts of 4-day-old chick embryos were exposed to normoxia (30 min), anoxia (30 min), and hyperoxic reoxygenation (60 min). The time course of ROS production in the whole heart and in the atria, ventricle, and outflow tract was established using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. Cardiac rhythm, conduction, and arrhythmias were determined. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, gutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase as well as the content of reduced and oxidized glutathione were measured. The relative contribution of the ROS-generating systems was assessed by inhibition of mitochondrial complexes I and III (rotenone and myxothiazol), NADPH oxidases (diphenylene iodonium and apocynine), and nitric oxide synthases (N-monomethyl-l-arginine and N-iminoethyl-l-ornithine). The effects of glycolysis inhibition (iodoacetate), glucose deprivation, glycogen depletion, and lactate accumulation were also investigated. In untreated hearts, ROS production peaked at 10.8 ± 3.3, 9 ± 0.8, and 4.8 ± 0.4 min (means ± SD; n = 4) of reoxygenation in the atria, ventricle, and outflow tract, respectively, and was associated with arrhythmias. Functional recovery was complete after 30-40 min. At reoxygenation, 1) the respiratory chain and NADPH oxidases were the main sources of ROS in the atria and outflow tract, respectively; 2) glucose deprivation decreased, whereas glycogen depletion increased, oxidative stress; 3) lactate worsened oxidant stress via NADPH oxidase activation; 4) glycolysis blockade enhanced ROS production; 5) no nitrosative stress was detectable; and 6) the glutathione redox cycle appeared to be a major antioxidant system. Thus, the glycolytic pathway plays a predominant role in reoxygenation-induced oxidative stress during early cardiogenesis. The relative contribution of mitochondria and extramitochondrial systems to ROS generation varies from one region to another and throughout reoxygenation.
reactive oxygen species, glutathione redox cycle, glycogen, nitrotyrosine, antioxidant enzymes, k-atp channels, developing chick-embryo, cardiac outflow tract, nitric-oxide, oxidative stress, superoxide-dismutase, redox state, antioxidant defense, lipid-peroxidation, cell-death
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