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Genetic evidence that expression of NahG modifies defence pathways independent of salicylic acid biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato interaction.
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The salicylic acid (SA)-induction deficient (sid) mutants of Arabidopsis, eds5 and sid2 accumulate normal amounts of camalexin after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), while transgenic NahG plants expressing an SA hydroxylase that degrades SA have reduced levels of camalexin and exhibit a higher susceptibility to different pathogens compared to the sid mutants. SID2 encodes an isochorismate synthase necessary for the synthesis of SA. NahG was shown to act epistatically to the sid mutant phenotype regarding accumulation of camalexin after inoculation with Pst in eds5NahG and sid2NahG plants. The effect of the pad4 mutation on the sid mutant phenotype was furthermore tested in eds5pad4 and sid2pad4 double mutants, and it was demonstrated that PAD4 acts epistatically to EDS5 and SID2 regarding the production of camalexin after inoculation with Pst. NahG plants and pad4 mutants were also found to produce less ethylene (ET) after infection with Pst in comparison to the wild type (WT) and sid mutants. Both PAD4 and NahG acted epistatically to SID regarding the Pst-dependent production of ET that was found to be necessary for the accumulation of camalexin. Early production of jasmonic acid (JA) 12 h after inoculation with Pst/avrRpt2 was absent in all plants expressing NahG compared to the other mutants tested here. These genetic studies unravel pleiotropic changes in defence signalling of NahG plants that are unlikely to result from their low SA content. This adds unexpected difficulties in the interpretation of earlier findings based solely on NahG plants.
Arabidopsis/enzymology, Arabidopsis/genetics, Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics, Base Sequence, DNA Primers, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Gene Expression Regulation, Plant, Plant Diseases/microbiology, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Pseudomonas/pathogenicity
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