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Why do females mate with multiple males ? The sexually selected sperm hypothesis
Advances in the Study of Behavior
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Bd99f Times Cited:167 Cited References Count:130 Advances in the Study of Behavior
One debated issues in evolutionary biology is, why in many species females mate with multiple males. Several hypotheses have been put forward, yet the benefits of multiple mating (here defined as mating with several males) remain unclear in many cases. The sperm sexual selection (SSS) hypothesis has been developed to account for the widespread occurrence of multiple mating in females. It argues that multiple mating by females may rapidly spread, when initially a small fraction of the females mate multiply, and if there is a heritable difference among males in one or several of the four characteristics: (1) the quantity of sperm they produce; (2) the success of their sperm in reaching and fertilizing an egg; (3) their ability to displace the sperm that females stored during previous mating; and (4) their ability to prevent any other male from subsequently introducing sperm (e.g., differential efficiency of mating plugs).
quantitative genetics drosophila-melanogaster social hymenoptera competition evolution behavior size insects choice spermatozoa
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