Article: article from journal or magazin.
Risques peropératoires lors de chirurgie cérébrale anévrismale [Peroperative risks in cerebral aneurysm surgery].
Annales Françaises d'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation
Publication types: Clinical Trial ; English Abstract ; Journal Article ; Multicenter Study
Publication Status: ppublish
Publication Status: ppublish
The perioperative complications associated with cerebral aneurysm surgery require a specific anaesthetic management. Four major perioperative accidents are discussed in this review. The anaesthetic and surgical management in case of rebleeding subsequent to the re-rupture of the aneurysm is mainly prophylactic. It includes haemodynamic stability assurance, maintenance of mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 80-90 mmHg during stimulation of the patient such as endotracheal intubation, application of the skull-pin head-holder, incision, and craniotomy. The aneurysmal transmural pressure should be adequately maintained by avoiding an aggressive decrease of intracranial pressure. Once the skull is open, the brain must be kept slack in order to decrease pressure under the retractors and avoid the risks of stretching and tearing of the adjacent vessels. If, despite these precautions, the aneurysm ruptures again. MAP should be decreased to 60 mmHg and the brain rendered more slack, in order to allow direct clipping of the aneurysm, or temporary clipping of the adjacent vessels. The optimal agents in this situation are isoflurane (which decreases CMRO2), intravenous anaesthetic agents (inspite their negative inotropic effect, they may potentially protect the brain) and sodium nitroprusside. Vasospasm occurs usually between the 3rd and the 7th day after subarachnoid haemorrhage. It may be seen peroperatively. The optimal treatment, as well as prophylaxis, is moderate controlled hypertension (MAP > 100 mmHg), associated with hypervolaemia and haemodilution, the so-called triple H therapy, with strict control of the filling pressures. Other beneficial therapies are calcium antagonists (nimodipine and nicardipine), the removal of the blood accumulated around the brain and in the cisternae, and possibly local administration of papaverine. Abrupt MAP increases are controlled in order to maintain adequate aneurysmal transmural pressure. Beta-blockers, local anaesthetics administered locally or intravenously, a carefully titrated level of anaesthesia, a maintained volaemia play a protective role. Cerebral oedema is sometimes already present at the opening of the skull or may arise later, due to a high pressure under the retractors, to the surgical manipulations of the brain or to brain ischaemia subsequent to temporary clipping. Its treatment is aggressive, with intravenous agents, mannitol, deep hypocapnia and/or lumbar drainage. Prophylaxis, according to the "brain homeostasis concept", is the preferred method to avoid these four peroperative accidents. It includes normal blood volume, normoglycaemia, moderate hypocapnia, normotension, soft manipulation of the brain and optimal brain relaxation.
Anesthesia, General/methods, Aneurysm, Ruptured/physiopathology, Aneurysm, Ruptured/prevention & control, Brain Edema/therapy, Humans, Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery, Intraoperative Complications, Ischemic Attack, Transient/prevention & control, Monitoring, Intraoperative, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors
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