Article: article from journal or magazin.
D-amphetamine fails to increase extracellular dopamine levels in mice lacking alpha 1b-adrenergic receptors: relationship between functional and nonfunctional dopamine release.
Journal of Neuroscience
It was found recently that locomotor and rewarding effects of psychostimulants and opiates were dramatically decreased or suppressed in mice lacking alpha1b-adrenergic receptors [alpha1b-adrenergic receptor knock-outs (alpha1bAR-KOs)] (Drouin et al., 2002). Here we show that blunted locomotor responses induced by 3 and 6 mg/kg d-amphetamine in alpha1bAR-KO mice [-84 and -74%, respectively, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice] are correlated with an absence of d-amphetamine-induced increase in extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens of alpha1bAR-KO mice. Moreover, basal extracellular DA levels in the nucleus accumbens are lower in alpha1bAR-KO than in WT littermates (-28%; p < 0.001). In rats however, prazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic antagonist, decreases d-amphetamine-induced locomotor hyperactivity without affecting extracellular DA levels in the nucleus accumbens, a finding related to the presence of an important nonfunctional release of DA (Darracq et al., 1998). We show here that local d-amphetamine releases nonfunctional DA with the same affinity but a more than threefold lower amplitude in C57BL6/J mice than in Sprague Dawley rats. Altogether, this suggests that a trans-synaptic mechanism amplifies functional DA into nonfunctional DA release. Our data confirm the presence of a powerful coupling between noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons through the stimulation of alpha1b-adrenergic receptors and indicate that nonfunctional DA release is critical in the interpretation of changes in extracellular DA levels. These results suggest that alpha1b-adrenergic receptors may be important therapeutic pharmacological targets not only in addiction but also in psychosis because most neuroleptics possess anti-alpha1-adrenergic properties.
Animals, Behavior, Animal/drug effects, Dextroamphetamine/pharmacology, Dopamine/analysis, Dopamine/metabolism, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Extracellular Space/chemistry, Extracellular Space/metabolism, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Microdialysis, Motor Activity/drug effects, Nucleus Accumbens/cytology, Nucleus Accumbens/drug effects, Perfusion, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/deficiency, Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1/genetics, Species Specificity
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