Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Renal sodium handling and nighttime blood pressure.
Seminars in nephrology
Publication types: Journal Article ; Review - Publication Status: ppublish
Blood pressure follows a circadian rhythm with a physiologic 10% to 20% decrease during the night. There is now increasing evidence that a blunted decrease or an increase in nighttime blood pressure is associated with a greater prevalence of target organ damage and a faster disease progression in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Several factors contribute to the changes in nighttime blood pressure including changes in hormonal profiles such as variations in the activity of the renin-angiotensin and the sympathetic nervous systems. Recently, it was hypothesized that the absence of a blood pressure decrease during the nighttime (nondipping) is in fact a pressure-natriuresis mechanism enabling subjects with an impaired capacity to excrete sodium to remain in sodium balance. In this article, we review the clinical and epidemiologic data that tend to support this hypothesis. Moreover, we show that most, if not all, clinical conditions associated with an impaired dipping profile are diseases associated either with a low glomerular filtration rate and/or an impaired ability to excrete sodium. These observations would suggest that renal function, and most importantly the ability to eliminate sodium during the day, is indeed a key determinant of the circadian rhythm of blood pressure.
Blood Pressure, Cardiovascular Diseases, Circadian Rhythm, Humans, Kidney, Kidney Diseases, Prognosis, Sodium
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