Molecular mechanisms of chemotropism and cell fusion in unicellular fungi.

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State: Public
Version: Final published version
License: CC BY 4.0
Serval ID
serval:BIB_AAB485178DB7
Type
Article: article from journal or magazin.
Publication sub-type
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Collection
Publications
Institution
Title
Molecular mechanisms of chemotropism and cell fusion in unicellular fungi.
Journal
Journal of cell science
Author(s)
Martin S.G.
ISSN
1477-9137 (Electronic)
ISSN-L
0021-9533
Publication state
Published
Issued date
31/05/2019
Peer-reviewed
Oui
Volume
132
Number
11
Language
english
Notes
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; Review
Publication Status: epublish
Abstract
In all eukaryotic phyla, cell fusion is important for many aspects of life, from sexual reproduction to tissue formation. Fungal cells fuse during mating to form the zygote, and during vegetative growth to connect mycelia. Prior to fusion, cells first detect gradients of pheromonal chemoattractants that are released by their partner and polarize growth in their direction. Upon pairing, cells digest their cell wall at the site of contact and merge their plasma membrane. In this Review, I discuss recent work on the chemotropic response of the yeast models Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has led to a novel model of gradient sensing: the cell builds a motile cortical polarized patch, which acts as site of communication where pheromones are released and sensed. Initial patch dynamics serve to correct its position and align it with the gradient from the partner cell. Furthermore, I highlight the transition from cell wall expansion during growth to cell wall digestion, which is imposed by physical and signaling changes owing to hyperpolarization that is induced by cell proximity. To conclude, I discuss mechanisms of membrane fusion, whose characterization remains a major challenge for the future.
Keywords
Cell Communication, Cell Fusion, Cell Polarity/physiology, Cell Wall/metabolism, Chemotactic Factors/metabolism, Chemotaxis/physiology, Membrane Fusion/physiology, Pheromones/metabolism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae/physiology, Schizosaccharomyces/physiology, Cdc42, Cell fusion, Cell polarity, Chemotropism, MAPK, Pheromone gradient, S. cerevisiae, S. pombe
Pubmed
Web of science
Open Access
Yes
Create date
17/06/2019 18:40
Last modification date
07/07/2020 6:20
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