serval:BIB_C4DFC4B91B75
Automatization through Practice: The Opportunistic-Stopping Phenomenon Called into Question.
10.1111/cogs.13074
000732716800001
34913503
Dewi
JDM
author
Bagnoud
J.
author
Thevenot
C.
author
article
2021-12
Cognitive science
1551-6709
0364-0213
journal
45
12
e13074
As a theory of skill acquisition, the instance theory of automatization posits that, after a period of training, algorithm-based performance is replaced by retrieval-based performance. This theory has been tested using alphabet-arithmetic verification tasks (e.g., is A + 4 = E?), in which the equations are necessarily solved by counting at the beginning of practice but can be solved by memory retrieval after practice. A way to infer individuals' strategies in this task was supposedly provided by the opportunistic-stopping phenomenon, according to which, if individuals use counting, they can take the opportunity to stop counting when a false equation associated with a letter preceding the true answer has to be verified (e.g., A + 4 = D). In this case, such within-count equations would be rejected faster than false equations associated with letters following the true answers (e.g., A + 4 = F, i.e., outside-of-count equations). Conversely, the absence of opportunistic stopping would be the sign of retrieval. However, through a training experiment involving 19 adults, we show that opportunistic stopping is not a phenomenon that can be observed in the context of an alphabet-arithmetic verification task. Moreover, we provide an explanation of how and why it was wrongly inferred in the past. These results and conclusions have important implications for learning theories because they demonstrate that a shift from counting to retrieval over training cannot be deduced from verification time differences between outside and within-count equations in an alphabet-arithmetic task.
Counting
Knowledge acquisition
Learning
Retrieval
Strategies
Training
eng
60_published
true
peer-reviewed
Publication types: Journal Article
Publication Status: ppublish
University of Lausanne
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