Article: article from journal or magazin.
Conséquences de l'acte opératoire sur l'état nutritionnel [Consequences of surgery on nutritional status]
Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation
14 Suppl. 2
Publication types: English Abstract ; Journal Article ; Meta-Analysis
Trauma and surgery induce extensive physiological changes, commonly denominated the acute phase reaction (APR). This APR is activated by various kinds of stimuli, namely nociceptive stimulations, tissue injury, tissue ischaemia and reperfusion as well as by haemodynamic disturbances which occur commonly in such patients. APR is mainly characterised by the release of counter-regulatory hormones, complex metabolic changes and by the hepatic synthesis of numerous acute phase factors (C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, complement protein, etc). In addition, fever is typically present and there is a resistance to the nutritional support. The intensity of APR is variable, according to the extent of surgery, the subsequent course, occurrence of complications and to various factors related to the patient and its treatment. In patients with non complicated surgery and low or moderate severity trauma, the metabolic changes are minor and self-limited. In such a condition, there is no need for nutritional support. Conservely, in patients with complicated surgery or major trauma, there is an extensive APR, which can be very prolonged. This results in important and sustained metabolic changes, leading to extensive catabolism and progressive loss of body cell mass. The latter is amplified by the decreased body ability to adapt to starvation and by the resistance to the nutritional support that typically occur in complicated postoperative and trauma patients. Total parenteral nutrition does not prevent from metabolic changes occurring in surgical patients. By contrast, several experimental and human studies have shown that early enteral nutrition may alleviate both the endocrine and metabolic responses in such conditions. Regional anaesthesia, particularly by the epidural route, may also decrease but not abolish the extent of APR.
Acute-Phase Proteins/metabolism, Acute-Phase Reaction/metabolism, Body Composition, Energy Metabolism, Female, Food Deprivation/physiology, Glucose/metabolism, Humans, Lipid Metabolism, Male, Nutritional Status, Proteins/metabolism, Stress, Psychological/complications, Surgical Procedures, Operative
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