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Rôle de la barrière hématoencéphalique dans l'homéostasie cérébrale [Role of blood-brain barrier in cerebral homeostasis]
Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation
By a variety of mechanisms, the cerebral endothelium isolates the extracellular fluid space in the central nervous system from the plasma. The combination of physical and enzymatic mechanisms which prevent macromolecules, polar solutes, neurotransmitters, peptides, and electrolytes from passively entering the brain has been termed the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Specific mechanisms provide facilitated transport across the BBB and active secretion of extracellular fluid and CSF maintain homeostasis for nutrients and for cation and H+ respectively. Consequently, interstitial fluid volume in the CNS does not increase when the total extracellular fluid volume is increased. Total tissue volume is sensitive to osmotic forces, while oncotic forces are relatively unimportant. Most anaesthetic drugs are sufficiently lipid soluble that they enter the CNS easily by passive diffusion. Differences in the rates of CNS penetration between drugs can be predicted from their lipid solubility. Anaesthetic drugs have little effect on BBB permeability and their effects on brain oedema formation derive principally from their haemodynamics effects.
Anesthetics/pharmacokinetics, Blood-Brain Barrier, Brain/physiology, Brain Chemistry, Cerebrovascular Circulation, Homeostasis, Humans, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Neurotransmitter Agents/pharmacokinetics
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