Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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UV irradiation of human keratinocytes activates the inflammasome
Title of the conference
37th Annual Meeting of the European Society Dermatological Research
Zurich, Switzerland, Sep 05-08, 2007
Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Human keratinocytes represent a potent source of the pro-inflammatory cytokines pro-interleukin(IL)-1α and -β. ProIL-1β requires processing by caspase-1 (IL-1β-converting enzyme, ICE) for activation and receptor binding. ProIL-1α and -β lack a signal peptide and leave the cell via the alternative secretion pathway, which is independent of the classical ER/Golgi pathway. Both cytokines are stored in the cytoplasm and can be activated and released upon UV irradiation. In macrophages maturation of proIL-1β requires the activation of inflammasomes, innate multiprotein immune complexes, which are essential for the activation of caspase-1 and thereby for processing of proIL-1β. However, the intracellular pathways, which are responsible for activation of proIL-1β and secretion of IL-1β in keratinocytes, are unknown. We show that human keratinocytes express inflammasome proteins in vitro and in vivo. UVB irradiation of keratinocytes results in an increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ from intracellular stores. This shift is required for inflammasome-dependent activation of caspase-1 and subsequent processing of proIL-1β and secretion of IL-1β. In contrast to macrophages, caspase-1 cannot activate proIL-18 in keratinocytes, although secretion of this cytokine is also induced by UVB irradiation. In vivo, caspase-1 is also essential for UVB-induced inflammation in the skin, since caspase-1 knockout mice showed a strongly reduced inflammatory response after UVB irradiation. Our results suggest that keratinocytes are important immuno-competent cells under physiological and pathological conditions.
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