Article: article from journal or magazin.
Anorectal anomalies associated with or as part of other anomalies.
American Journal of Medical Genetics
EUROSCAN Working Group
(Addor M.C. included in the EUROSCAN Working group)
Anorectal anomalies occurring with other anomalies or as part of syndromes were analyzed to determine how their epidemiological characteristics differed from those of isolated anal anomalies. Almost 15% of cases were chromosomal, monogenic or teratogenic syndromes, whereas the rest were of unknown cause including sequences (9.3%), VACTERL associations (15.4%) and multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) (60.2%). Almost half of babies with MCA had one or two VACTERL anomalies with distribution frequencies that did not differ significantly from those in babies with the full VACTERL association. There were considerable differences in the frequency of the VACTERL association among babies with different types of anorectal anomaly. Babies with anal anomalies occurring with sequences, VACTERL or MCA showed the same sex differences as babies with isolated anal anomalies, namely male predominance in anal atresia without fistula or cloaca, no sex difference in anal atresia with fistula, and female predominance in ectopic anus and congenital anal fistula. These anomalies, however, were associated with significantly lower mean gestational lengths and birth weights, and higher frequencies of fetal death and pregnancy termination than babies with isolated anal anomalies. Twins were more frequent in sequences, VACTERL and MCA than in isolated anomalies, monogenic syndromes or chromosome anomalies. Five cases were conjoined twins, representing 15% of all cases of twin pregnancies with an anal anomaly. Indeterminate sex was more frequent in babies with anal atresias without fistula than in those with fistula. Anal anomalies are defects of blastogenesis attributable to disorders in expression of pattern determining genes. The differential sex involvement in different types of anal anomaly may be manifestations of expression of the HY/SRY genes during blastogenesis or of X-linkage.
Abnormalities, Multiple, Anal Canal, Chromosome Aberrations, Female, Humans, Infant, Newborn, Male, Rectum, Registries, Syndrome
Web of science
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