Article: article from journal or magazin.
Adenosine A1 receptor activation is arrhythmogenic in the developing heart through NADPH oxidase/ERK- and PLC/PKC-dependent mechanisms.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Whether adenosine, a crucial regulator of the developing cardiovascular system, can provoke arrhythmias in the embryonic/fetal heart remains controversial. Here, we aimed to establish a mechanistic basis of how an adenosinergic stimulation alters function of the developing heart. Spontaneously beating hearts or dissected atria and ventricle obtained from 4-day-old chick embryos were exposed to adenosine or specific agonists of the receptors A(1)AR (CCPA), A(2A)AR (CGS-21680) and A(3)AR (IB-MECA). Expression of the receptors was determined by quantitative PCR. The functional consequences of blockade of NADPH oxidase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C (PKC) and L-type calcium channel (LCC) in combination with adenosine or CCPA, were investigated in vitro by electrocardiography. Furthermore, the time-course of ERK phosphorylation was determined by western blotting. Expression of A(1)AR, A(2A)AR and A(2B)AR was higher in atria than in ventricle while A(3)AR was equally expressed. Adenosine (100μM) triggered transient atrial ectopy and second degree atrio-ventricular blocks (AVB) whereas CCPA induced mainly Mobitz type I AVB. Atrial rhythm and atrio-ventricular propagation fully recovered after 60min. These arrhythmias were prevented by the specific A(1)AR antagonist DPCPX. Adenosine and CCPA transiently increased ERK phosphorylation and induced arrhythmias in isolated atria but not in ventricle. By contrast, A(2A)AR and A(3)AR agonists had no effect. Interestingly, the proarrhythmic effect of A(1)AR stimulation was markedly reduced by inhibition of NADPH oxidase, ERK, PLC, PKC or LCC. Moreover, NADPH oxidase inhibition or antioxidant MPG prevented both A(1)AR-mediated arrhythmias and ERK phosphorylation. These results suggest that pacemaking and conduction disturbances are induced via A(1)AR through concomitant stimulation of NADPH oxidase and PLC, followed by downstream activation of ERK and PKC with LCC as possible target.
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