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Cadmium body burden of the Swiss population.
Food Additives and Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
Urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion was measured within a representative Swiss collective. With a median of 0.23 µg/24 h (n = 1409) and the 95th percentile at 0.81 µg/24 h, no increased health risk for the general non-exposed population was identified. The independent variables Age, BMI and Smoking habit had a significant effect on urinary Cd excretion. No association was found with the region of residence and sex. A subsample comparison between 24-h and spot urines of the same subjects (n = 90) did not reveal an evident concentration difference for both creatinine-adjusted sample types. Dependencies on age and gender were observed for creatinine, which consequently impacts on the creatinine normalisation of urine samples.
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