Article: article from journal or magazin.
Nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation reprograms gene expression and activates defense markers in Arabidopsis tocopherol-deficient mutants.
Tocopherols (vitamin E) are lipophilic antioxidants that are synthesized by all plants and are particularly abundant in seeds. Two tocopherol-deficient mutant loci in Arabidopsis thaliana were used to examine the functions of tocopherols in seedlings: vitamin e1 (vte1), which accumulates the pathway intermediate 2,3-dimethyl-5-phytyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DMPBQ); and vte2, which lacks all tocopherols and pathway intermediates. Only vte2 displayed severe seedling growth defects, which corresponded with massively increased levels of the major classes of nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation products: hydroxy fatty acids, malondialdehyde, and phytoprostanes. In the absence of pathogens, the phytoalexin camalexin accumulated in vte2 seedlings to levels 100-fold higher than in wild-type or vte1 seedlings. Similarly, gene expression profiling in wild-type, vte1, and vte2 seedlings indicated that increased levels of nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in vte2 corresponded to increased expression of many defense-related genes, which were not induced in vte1. Both biochemical and transcriptional analyses of vte2 seedlings indicate that nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation plays a significant role in modulating plant defense responses. Together, these results establish that tocopherols in wild-type plants or DMPBQ in vte1 plants limit nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation during germination and early seedling development, thereby preventing the inappropriate activation of transcriptional and biochemical defense responses.
Arabidopsis/genetics, Arabidopsis/immunology, Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics, Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism, Biological Markers, Cyclopentanes/metabolism, Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Plant, Germination, Immunity, Innate/genetics, Indoles/metabolism, Lipid Peroxidation, Malondialdehyde/metabolism, Mutation/genetics, Oxylipins, Plant Diseases/genetics, Plant Diseases/immunology, RNA, Messenger/genetics, RNA, Messenger/metabolism, Seedling/metabolism, Thiazoles/metabolism, Tocopherols/chemistry, Tocopherols/metabolism, Up-Regulation
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