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Transobturator surgery for female stress incontinence: a comparative anatomical study of outside-in vs inside-out techniques.
OBJECTIVE To assess the specific risks of injury to neural and vascular structures inherent in two approaches to transobturator surgery for inserting a suburethral sling, i.e. the outside-in (standard technique) and inside-out approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study comprised seven cadavers, providing 14 obturator regions. Five specimens had a tape inserted outside-in on one side, and inside-out on the other; of the remaining two cadavers, one had an inside-out tape and one an outside-in tape, bilaterally. After tape insertion, the cadavers were dissected. Particular attention was paid to the distances between the tape and the deep external pudendal vessels, and between the tape and the posterior branch of the obturator nerve. RESULTS With the inside-out technique, the safety margins were reduced, and the external pudendal vessels and the posterior branch of the obturator nerve were at greater risk of injury. CONCLUSION The two techniques are not equivalent, with a lower risk of injury to vascular and nerve structures with the outside-in technique.
Cadaver, Female, Humans, Obturator Nerve/anatomy & histology, Obturator Nerve/injuries, Risk Factors, Suburethral Slings, Urinary Incontinence, Stress/surgery, Urologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects, Urologic Surgical Procedures/methods
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