Article: article from journal or magazin.
Global gene expression profiles reveal an increase in mRNA levels of collagens, MMPs, and TIMPs in late radiation enteritis.
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Publication types: Journal ArticlePublication Status: ppublish
Radiation enteritis, a common complication of radiation therapy for abdominal and pelvic cancers, is characterized by severe transmural fibrosis associated with mesenchymal cell activation, tissue disorganization, and deposition of fibrillar collagen. To investigate the mechanisms involved in this pathological accumulation of extracellular matrix, we studied gene expression of matrix components along with that of genes involved in matrix remodeling, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Hybrid selection on high-density cDNA array, real-time RT-PCR, gelatin zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to characterize the mRNA expression profile, activity, and tissue location of extracellular matrix-related genes in radiation enteritis compared with healthy ileum. cDNA array analysis revealed a strong induction of genes coding for collagens I, III, IV, VI, and VIII, SPARC, and tenascin-C, extracellular-matrix degrading enzymes (MMP-1, -2, -3, -14, -18+19), and metalloproteinase inhibitors (TIMP-1, -2, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) in radiation enteritis. This increase was correlated with the degree of infiltration of the mucosa by inflammatory cells, and the presence of differentiated mesenchymal cells in the submucosa and muscularis propria. Despite the fact that expression of collagens, MMPs, and TIMPs simultaneously increase, quantification of net collagen deposition shows an overall accumulation of collagen. Our results indicate that late radiation enteritis tissues are subjected to active process of fibrogenesis as well as fibrolysis, with a balance toward fibrogenesis. This demonstrates that established fibrotic tissue is not scarred fixed tissue but is subjected to a dynamic remodeling process.
Biopsy, Collagen/genetics, Enteritis/etiology, Enteritis/genetics, Fibrosis, Gelatinases/genetics, Gene Expression Profiling, Humans, Intestines/pathology, Intestines/physiopathology, Matrix Metalloproteinase 3/genetics, Matrix Metalloproteinases/genetics, Neoplasms/radiotherapy, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, RNA, Messenger/metabolism, Radiation Injuries/genetics, Radiation Injuries/pathology, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases/genetics
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