Inproceedings: an article in a conference proceedings.
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Coagulation Factor Xa Activates Thrombin and Signals Ischemic Neuronal Death Via Par-1 and JNK in Ischemic Neural Tissue
Title of the conference
19th European Stroke Conference
Barcelona, Spain, May 25-28, 2010
Background: The coagulation factor thrombin mediates ischemic neuronal deathand, at a low concentration, induces tolerance to ischemia.We investigated its modeof activation in ischemic neural tissue using an in vitro approach to distinguish therole of circulating coagulation factors from endogenous cerebral mechanisms. Wealso studied the signalling pathway downstream of thrombin in ischemia and afterthrombin preconditioning.Methods: Rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to 30 minute oxygen (5%)and glucose (1 mmol/L) deprivation (OGD).Results: Selective factor Xa (FXa) inhibition by fondaparinux during and afterOGD significantly reduced neuronal death in the CA1 after 48 hours. Thrombinactivity was increased in the medium 24 hours after OGD and this increasewas prevented by fondaparinux suggesting that FXa catalyzes the conversion ofprothrombin to thrombin in neural tissue after ischemia in vitro. Treatment withSCH79797, a selective antagonist of the thrombin receptor protease activatedreceptor-1 (PAR-1), significantly decreased neuronal cell death indicating thatthrombin signals ischemic damage via PAR-1. The JNK pathway plays an importantrole in cerebral ischemia and we observed activation of the JNK substrate,c-Jun in our model. Both the FXa inhibitor, fondaparinux and the PAR-1 antagonistSCH79797, decreased the level of phospho-c-Jun Ser73. After thrombin preconditioningc-Jun was activated by phosphorylation in the nuclei of neurons of the CA1.Treatment with a synthetic thrombin receptor agonist resulted in the same c-Junactivation profile and protection against subsequent OGD indicating that thrombinalso signals via PAR-1 and c-Jun in cell protection.Conclusion: These results indicate that FXa activates thrombin in cerebral ischemia,leading via PAR-1 to the activation of the JNK pathway resulting in neuronal death.Thrombin induced tolerance also involves PAR-1 and JNK, revealing commonfeatures in cell death and survival signalling.
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