Article: article from journal or magazin.
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 lacking ICP34.5 induces p53-independent death and is efficacious against chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer.
Clinical Cancer Research
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.Publication Status: ppublish
Replication-restricted herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) strains lacking ICP34.5 are emerging as powerful anticancer agents against several solid tumors including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Although chemotherapy-resistant tumors would be likely candidates for treatment with HSV-1 mutants lacking ICP34.5, the efficacy of these mutants on such tumors is unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether chemotherapy resistance affects the response of ovarian cancer cells to HSV-R3616, an ICP34.5-deficient, replication-restricted HSV-1. Primary EOC cultures obtained from patients who varied in their responses to platinum/paclitaxel induction chemotherapy displayed similar sensitivity to HSV-R3616. Similarly, chemotherapy-sensitive ovarian cancer cells A2780 and PA-1, possessing wild-type p53, and their respective chemotherapy-resistant clones A2780/200CP, lacking p53 function, and PA-1/E6, permanently expressing the HPV E6 gene, were equally sensitive to HSV oncolysis. Because wild-type HSV can kill cells by apoptosis and nonapoptotic mechanisms, we investigated the involvement of apoptosis and the role of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in oncolysis induced by HSV-R3616. Infection of ovarian cancer cell lines by HSV-R3616 was followed by cell death via apoptosis or nonapoptotic mechanisms as noted by morphology, cell cycle analysis, and in situ TUNEL assay. p53 protein levels remained unchanged, and Bax protein levels decreased in cells possessing intact p53 and that mainly underwent HSV-induced apoptosis. Loss of p53 function did not affect the frequency or rate of apoptosis or the sensitivity of EOC cells to the oncolytic effect of HSV-R3616. These results suggest that recombinant HSV-1 lacking ICP34.5 is capable of killing ovarian cancer cells that lack p53 function, resist apoptosis, and/or are chemotherapy resistant. These data support the hypothesis that HSV-based oncolytic therapy may be efficacious in chemotherapy-resistant tumors, including tumors that are deficient in p53.
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology, Apoptosis/physiology, Cell Death/physiology, Cisplatin/pharmacology, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, Female, Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics, Herpesvirus 1, Human/metabolism, Humans, Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology, Ovarian Neoplasms/therapy, Paclitaxel/pharmacology, Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2, Tumor Cells, Cultured, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/physiology, Viral Proteins/genetics, Viral Proteins/physiology, Virus Replication, bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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