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Cystic nephroma and mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney: a detailed clinicopathologic analysis of 34 cases and proposal for renal epithelial and stromal tumor (REST) as a unifying term.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Cystic nephroma (CN) and mixed epithelial and stromal tumor (MEST) are rare benign renal neoplasms that have overlapping clinical and morphologic features, including predominance in middle-aged women, variably cystic architecture, eosinophilic cells, and hobnail cells lining the cysts and ovarian-type stroma. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the histologic features and immunohistochemical profile of these tumors. We studied 34 cases from 5 large academic institutions. Twenty tumors were diagnosed as CNs, 18 in women and 2 in men, their age ranged from 24 to 63 (mean 48; median 50) years. Fourteen tumors were diagnosed as MESTs, all in women, their age ranged from 26 to 84 (mean 52; median 51) years. Histologically, all tumors were well-circumscribed except for one MEST. The stromal/epithelial ratio was approximately 2.3 in MESTs versus 0.3 in CNs; cellular ovarian-type stroma composed 45% of the stroma in MESTs and 12% of the stroma of CNs. Stromal hyalinization was prominent in both. Five MESTs showed stromal luteinization. In the epithelial component, the relative amount of large cysts, medium to small cysts, and phyllodes-type glands was: 65%/25%/10% in CNs versus 25%/40%/35% in MESTs. The epithelial component ranged from flat to cuboidal to hobnail cells in both types of tumors. No significant atypia of either component was seen, although the epithelial cells showed reactive changes. Immunohistochemical stains for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors showed 62% and 85% positivity in the stromal component of MESTs versus 19% and 40% in CNs. CD10 positivity was seen in 77% of MESTs versus 50% of CNs, calretinin was seen in 69% of MESTs versus 41% of CNs, and inhibin in 42% of MESTs versus 36% of CNs, although the staining was focal. Follow-up in both categories of tumors (mean 3.2 y, median 3 y for CNs and mean 2.5 y, median of 2 y for MESTs) showed no evidence of recurrence or metastases in keeping with their benign nature. This study highlights the remarkable similarity between CN and MEST in sex predilection, age distribution, and morphologic attributes of both the epithelial and stromal components and immunohistochemical profile albeit with variation in individual categories with higher prevalence of stromal to epithelial ratio, prominent ovarian stroma, smaller cysts with phyllodes glands pattern and stromal luteinization being more common in MEST; and large cysts, thin septae and low stromal to epithelial ratio in CN. The presence of ovarian-type stroma and müllerian related immunohistochemical markers raises the possibility that these tumors may originate from müllerian remnants misplaced during embryogenesis. On the basis of detailed morphologic analysis of this series of CN and MEST, we propose a unifying term of "renal epithelial and stromal tumor" (REST) to encompass the spectrum of findings observed in these tumors at least until new molecular studies can prove or disprove this challenging hypothesis.
Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Female, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Kidney Neoplasms/classification, Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial/classification, Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial/metabolism, Nephroma, Mesoblastic/classification, Nephroma, Mesoblastic/metabolism, Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism, Receptors, Progesterone/metabolism, Stromal Cells/metabolism, Stromal Cells/pathology
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