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Hypertension artérielle contrôlée et protection cérébrale [Controlled hypertension and cerebral protection]
Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation
Among the techniques of cerebral protection, the use of controlled arterial hypertension is based on the following arguments: 1) Cerebral ischaemia is the final common pathway of any insult to the brain, particularly through secondary lesions. Causes of secondary cerebral lesions include pressure under the brain retractors, temporary clipping, arterial hypotension, hypoxaemia, anaemia and hypercapnia. 2) In the brain, the critical lower value for cerebral blood flow is around 25 mL.100g-1.min-1, under which two types of ischaemic areas can be defined: the penlucida type where cerebral function is abolished, without permanent cerebral lesion and the penumbra type where cerebral tissue recovers only if flow is rapidly restored. In the latter case the duration of ischaemia is very important. 3) Cerebral blood flow is maintained stable within a large range of variations of mean arterial pressure through the autoregulation mechanisms, which is based on vasomotricity of the cerebral circulation, which implies major variations in cerebral blood volume. However, autoregulation needs several dozens of seconds to be achieved. Therefore, sudden variations in mean arterial pressure are associated with short lasting but major variations in cerebral blood volume. 4) In case of increased intracranial pressure, a decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure causes cerebral vasodilation through the autoregulation mechanism, with an increase in cerebral blood volume which will, in turn, increase intracranial pressure and thus decrease cerebral perfusion pressure, and so on. This is the vasodilatory cascade. The therapeutical increase in mean arterial pressure will correct this phenomenon and decrease intracranial pressure. This is called the vasoconstrictive cascade.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Blood Pressure/physiology, Brain Ischemia/prevention & control, Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology, Homeostasis, Humans, Hypertension/physiopathology
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