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Controls on ostracod valve geochemistry: Part 2. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
The stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of fossil ostracods are powerful tools to estimate past environmental and climatic conditions. The basis for such interpretations is that the calcite of the valves reflects the isotopic composition of water and its temperature of formation. However, calcite of ostracods is known not to form in isotopic equilibrium with water and different species may have different offsets from inorganic precipitates of calcite formed under the same conditions. To estimate the fractionation during ostracod valve calcification, the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of 15 species living in Lake Geneva were related to their autoecology and the environmental parameters measured during their growth. The results indicate that: (1) Oxygen isotope fractionation is similar for all species of Candoninae with an enrichment in 18O of more than 30/00 relative to equilibrium values for inorganic calcite. Oxygen isotope fractionation for Cytheroidea is less discriminative relative to the heavy oxygen, with enrichments in 18O for these species of 1.7 to 2.30/00. Oxygen isotope fractionations for Cyprididae are in-between those of Candoninae and Cytheroidea. The difference in oxygen isotope fractionation between ostracods and inorganic calcite has been interpreted as resulting from a vital effect. (2) Comparison with previous work suggests that oxygen isotope fractionation may depend on the total and relative ion content of water. (3) Carbon isotope compositions of ostracod valves are generally in equilibrium with DIC. The specimens' δ13C values are mainly controlled by seasonal variations in δ13CDIC of bottom water or variation thereof in sediment pore water. (4) Incomplete valve calcification has an effect on carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of ostracod valves. Preferential incorporation of at the beginning of valve calcification may explain this effect. (5) Results presented here as well as results from synthetic carbonate growth indicate that different growth rates or low pH within the calcification site cannot be the cause of oxygen isotope 'vital effects' in ostracods. Two mechanisms that might enrich the 18O of ostracod valves are deprotonation of that may also contribute to valve calcification, and effects comparable to salt effects with high concentrations of Ca and/or Mg within the calcification site that may also cause a higher temperature dependency of oxygen isotope fractionation.
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