Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
The problem of late allograft loss in kidney transplantation.
Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; Review
The 2 principal factors implicated in late kidney allograft failure are chronic rejection (also called chronic allograft nephropathy) and death of the patient with a functioning graft (mainly from cardiovascular causes). Despite lifelong immunosuppression of the recipient, immunological responses remain the leading factor in the pathogenesis of chronic rejection and both cellular and humoral immune mechanisms have been shown to play important roles. In this review, we highlight the relevance of humoral mechanisms of rejection to the pathogenesis of late allograft loss. Non immunological factors, such as donor organ quality, initial ischemic injury, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, also contribute to progressive chronic allograft injury, but will not be reviewed in detail here. Possible strategies to stabilize or improve allograft function in patients with already established "chronic rejection/chronic allograft nephropathy" (CR/CAN) are the addition of mycophenolate mofetil (or sirolimus) with or without a reduction of cyclosporine dosage, or conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus. However, prospective randomized clinical trials are needed to test the efficacy of these strategies. A major current challenge for transplant physicians is to develop regimens that prevent CR/CAN, since, once established, the process typically progresses inexorably to renal allograft loss in most recipients. Evidence is now accumulating that new immunosuppressive regimens must control not only T cell but also B cell responses (i.e. limit antidonor antibody production) in order to prevent CR/CAN and improve long-term allograft survival.
Cause of Death, Chronic Disease, Graft Rejection/etiology, Graft Rejection/immunology, Humans, Kidney Transplantation, Time Factors
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