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Suitability of human and mammalian cells of different origin for the assessment of genotoxicity of metal and polymeric engineered nanoparticles.
Publication types: Journal ArticlePublication Status: ppublish
Nanogenotoxicity is a crucial endpoint in safety testing of nanomaterials as it addresses potential mutagenicity, which has implications for risks of both genetic disease and carcinogenesis. Within the NanoTEST project, we investigated the genotoxic potential of well-characterised nanoparticles (NPs): titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs of nominal size 20 nm, iron oxide (8 nm) both uncoated (U-Fe3O4) and oleic acid coated (OC-Fe3O4), rhodamine-labelled amorphous silica 25 (Fl-25 SiO2) and 50 nm (Fl-50 SiO) and polylactic glycolic acid polyethylene oxide polymeric NPs - as well as Endorem® as a negative control for detection of strand breaks and oxidised DNA lesions with the alkaline comet assay. Using primary cells and cell lines derived from blood (human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid TK6 cells), vascular/central nervous system (human endothelial human cerebral endothelial cells), liver (rat hepatocytes and Kupffer cells), kidney (monkey Cos-1 and human HEK293 cells), lung (human bronchial 16HBE14o cells) and placenta (human BeWo b30), we were interested in which in vitro cell model is sufficient to detect positive (genotoxic) and negative (non-genotoxic) responses. All in vitro studies were harmonized, i.e. NPs from the same batch, and identical dispersion protocols (for TiO2 NPs, two dispersions were used), exposure time, concentration range, culture conditions and time-courses were used. The results from the statistical evaluation show that OC-Fe3O4 and TiO2 NPs are genotoxic in the experimental conditions used. When all NPs were included in the analysis, no differences were seen among cell lines - demonstrating the usefulness of the assay in all cells to identify genotoxic and non-genotoxic NPs. The TK6 cells, human lymphocytes, BeWo b30 and kidney cells seem to be the most reliable for detecting a dose-response.
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