Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Microvascular burden and Alzheimer-type lesions across the age spectrum.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : Jad
Publication types: Journal ArticlePublication Status: ppublish
The occurrence of microvascular and small macrovascular lesions and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology in the aging human brain is a well-described phenomenon. Although there is a wide consensus about the relationship between macroscopic vascular lesions and incident dementia, the cognitive consequences of the progressive accumulation of these small vascular lesions in the human brain are still a matter of debate. Among the vast group of small vessel-related forms of ischemic brain injuries, the present review discusses the cognitive impact of cortical microinfarcts, subcortical gray matter and deep white matter lacunes, periventricular and diffuse white matter demyelinations, and focal or diffuse gliosis in old age. A special focus will be on the sub-types of microvascular lesions not detected by currently available neuroimaging studies in routine clinical settings. After providing a critical overview of in vivo data on white matter demyelinations and lacunes, we summarize the clinicopathological studies performed by our center in large cohorts of individuals with microvascular lesions and concomitant AD-related pathology across two age ranges (the younger old, 65-85 years old, versus the oldest old, nonagenarians and centenarians). In conjunction with other autopsy datasets, these observations fully support the idea that cortical microinfarcts are the only consistent determinant of cognitive decline across the entire spectrum from pure vascular cases to cases with combined vascular and AD lesion burden.
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