Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Spine changes associated with long-term potentiation.
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; Review Publication Status: ppublish
High-frequency stimulation of excitatory synapses in many regions of the brain triggers a lasting increase in the efficacy of synaptic transmission referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) and believed to contribute to learning and memory. One hypothesis proposed to account for the stability and properties of this functional plasticity is a structural remodeling of spine synapses. This possibility has recently received support from several studies. It has been found that spines are highly dynamic structures, that they can be formed very rapidly, and that synaptic activity and calcium modulate changes in spine shape and formation of new spines. Ultrastructural analyses bring additional support to these observations and suggest that LTP is associated with a remodeling of the postsynaptic density (PSD) and a process of spine duplication. This new information is reviewed and interpreted in light of other recent advances concerning the mechanisms of LTP and especially the role of postsynaptic glutamate receptor turnover in this form of plasticity. Taken together, a view is emerging that suggests that morphologic changes of spine synapses are associated with LTP and that they not only correlate with, but probably also contribute to the increase in synaptic transmission.
Animals, Dendrites/physiology, Dendrites/ultrastructure, Hippocampus/physiology, Hippocampus/ultrastructure, Long-Term Potentiation/physiology, Neuronal Plasticity/physiology, Synapses/physiology
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