Article: article from journal or magazin.
Outcome and patterns of failure in testicular lymphoma: a multicenter Rare Cancer Network study.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
Publication types: Journal Article ; Multicenter Study - Publication Status: ppublish
PURPOSE: To assess the outcome and patterns of failure in patients with testicular lymphoma treated by chemotherapy (CT) and/or radiation therapy (RT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data from a series of 36 adult patients with Ann Arbor Stage I (n = 21), II (n = 9), III (n = 3), or IV (n = 3) primary testicular lymphoma, consecutively treated between 1980 and 1999, were collected in a retrospective multicenter study by the Rare Cancer Network. Median age was 64 years (range: 21-91 years). Full staging workup (chest X-ray, testicular ultrasound, abdominal ultrasound, and/or thoracoabdominal computer tomography, bone marrow assessment, full blood count, lactate dehydrogenase, and cerebrospinal fluid evaluation) was completed in 18 (50%) patients. All but one patient underwent orchidectomy, and spermatic cord infiltration was found in 9 patients. Most patients (n = 29) had CT, consisting in most cases of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) with (n = 17) or without intrathecal CT. External RT was delivered to scrotum alone (n = 12) or testicular, iliac, and para-aortic regions (n = 8). The median RT dose was 31 Gy (range: 20-44 Gy) in a median of 17 fractions (10-24), using a median of 1.8 Gy (range: 1.5-2.5 Gy) per fraction. The median follow-up period was 42 months (range: 6-138 months). RESULTS: After a median period of 11 months (range: 1-76 months), 14 patients presented lymphoma progression, mostly in the central nervous system (CNS) (n = 8). Among the 17 patients who received intrathecal CT, 4 had a CNS relapse (p = NS). No testicular, iliac, or para-aortic relapse was observed in patients receiving RT to these regions. The 5-year overall, lymphoma-specific, and disease-free survival was 47%, 66%, and 43%, respectively. In univariate analyses, statistically significant factors favorably influencing the outcome were early-stage and combined modality treatment. Neither RT technique nor total dose influenced the outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed that the most favorable independent factors predicting the outcome were younger age, early-stage disease, and combined modality treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter retrospective study, CNS was found to be the principal site of relapse, and no extra-CNS lymphoma progression was observed in the irradiated volumes. More effective CNS prophylaxis, including combined modalities, should be prospectively explored in this uncommon site of extranodal lymphoma.
Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, Combined Modality Therapy, Cyclophosphamide, Disease-Free Survival, Doxorubicin, Humans, Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Staging, Orchiectomy, Prednisolone, Prognosis, Radiotherapy Dosage, Recurrence, Retrospective Studies, Testicular Neoplasms, Treatment Failure, Treatment Outcome, Vincristine
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