PhD thesis: a PhD thesis.
MACROPHAGES FROM CROHN'S DISEASE PATIENTS EXHIBIT DEFICIENT REPAIR FUNCTIONS
Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et médecine
Faculté de biologie et de médecine Université de Lausanne UNIL - Bugnon Rue du Bugnon 21 - bureau 4111 CH-1015 Lausanne SUISSE
AbstractBackground: Mucosal healing is becoming a major goal in the treatment of Crohn's disease. It has been previously reported that myeloid cells induce mucosal healing in a mouse model of acute colitis. The aim in this study is to investigate the pro-repair function of myeloid cells in healthy donors (HD) and Crohn's disease patients (CD).Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HD and CD patients were isolated from blood samples and tested either directly or after differentiation ex-vivo into macrophages (Μφ). Intestinal macrophages (IMACs) were isolated from the bowel mucosa of patients undergoing intestinal surgical resections. Through an in vitro wound healing assay the repairing ability of these various human myeloid cells and the mechanisms responsible of wound healing were evaluated.Results: PBMC and myeloid CD14+ cells from HD and CD were not able to repair at any tested cell concentration. Μφ from HD and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were able to induce wound healing and this capacity was partially mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF). Remarkably, CD Μφ were unable to promote wound healing and produced lower levels of HGF as compared to Μφ from HD or UC patients. In particular, Μφ from CD in active phase (ACD) exhibited the weakest repair function, but this defect was rescued if rh- GM-CSF was added during the differentiation of PBMCs. Interestingly, IMACs from HD promoted wound healing and produced HGF.Conclusion: We demonstrated that CD Μφ, unlike HD or UC Μφ, were defective in promoting wound healing, in particular if coming from an ACD. This deficient pro-repair function was related to a lower production of HGF. IMACs from HD colonic mucosa induced wound healing, confirming the results obtained with Μφ. Our results are in keeping with the current theory of CD as an innate immunodeficiency. In this context, Μφ may be responsible for the mucosal repair defects observed in CD patients and for the subsequent chronic activation of the adaptive immune response.
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