Article: article from journal or magazin.
The internal mammary artery malperfusion syndrome: incidence, treatment and angiographic verification.
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
190-5; discussion 196-7
Internal mammary artery (IMA) malperfusion syndrome is caused by an acute imbalance between myocardial demand and nutritional support through the mammary artery. In a consecutive series of 2326 isolated myocardial revascularizations-with at least one IMA to the left anterior descending branch (LAD) in 91.3% (2125/2326)-we identified 45 patients (1.9%) with a perioperative course suggesting IMA malperfusion syndrome. Additional saphenous vein graft to the distal segment of the LAD was performed during normothermic ventricular fibrillation in all patients. Hospital mortality was 4.4% (2/45), intra-aortic balloon pumping was required in 15.5% (7/45) and anterior myocardial infarction occurred in 28.8% (13/45). Coronary angiography was performed in all survivors between 3 and 24 months postoperatively. Wide patent IMA graft and patent saphenous vein graft were observed in 56% (24/43), narrowed but patent IMA graft and patent vein graft in 35% (15/43), while patent vein graft and not visualized IMA in 7% (3/43); in one patient with severely diseased peripheral LAD, no flow could be demonstrated in the IMA graft or in the additional vein graft (1/43, 2.4%). No major differences were found between early and late coronary angiography in these patients. Additional vein graft to distal LAD is the treatment of choice in acute IMA malperfusion syndrome. Despite patent vein graft with superior blood flow, early and late postoperative IMA flow to LAD is maintained in the majority of patients.
Adult, Aged, Coronary Angiography, Coronary Disease/surgery, Female, Graft Occlusion, Vascular/epidemiology, Graft Occlusion, Vascular/radiography, Humans, Incidence, Male, Mammary Arteries/transplantation, Middle Aged, Myocardial Reperfusion, Reoperation, Saphenous Vein/transplantation, Syndrome, Vascular Patency
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