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Infected endocardial pacemaker electrodes: successful open intracardiac removal
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Journal Article --- Old month value: Feb
The long-term results after open intracardiac removal of infected pacing electrodes are presented. METHODS: Between 1985 and 1990 open intracardiac removal of 19 infected pacing electrodes was performed in seven patients (six male and one female), with a mean age of 56 years. The indications were: persisting bacteremia in three; generator pocket infection in four; endocarditis in one; and ventricular tachycardia caused by retracted electrodes in one. All electrodes were fixed in the right heart and extraction by closed methods failed. Percutaneous catheter techniques were not applied in these seven patients. In five patients two ventricular electrodes had to be removed, and in two patients a single one. A total of seven atrial electrodes were removed in six patients (one electrode each in five patients; two electrodes in one patient). All atrial and two ventricular electrodes could be removed through a pursestring suture without use of a pump oxygenator. For the removal of ten ventricular electrodes in six patients (two electrodes each in four patients; 1 electrode each in two patients) a right-sided atriotomy was necessary with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Simultaneously, five new pacing systems were implanted. RESULTS: There were no early or late mortalities. In January 1991, all seven patients are alive and in a mean New York Heart Association Class 1,3 of heart failure after a mean interval of 33 months. In all cases the infection could controlled with a simultaneous antimicrobial chemotherapy and the postoperative period was free of major complications. CONCLUSION: Open intracardiac removal of retained pacing electrodes with or without use of CPB is a safe procedure without major complications. It is mandatory for all infected pacing electrodes that cannot be extracted by closed methods.
Adult Aged Female Humans Infection/*etiology/microbiology Male Middle Aged Pacemaker, Artificial/*adverse effects Reoperation
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