Article: article from journal or magazin.
Review (review): journal as complete as possible of one specific subject, written based on exhaustive analyses from published work.
Offspring of diabetic pregnancy: long-term outcomes.
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
Publication types: Journal Article ; Review Publication Status: ppublish
Diabetes in pregnancy has been shown to induce long-term effects in offspring. While considerable attention is focused on the increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adult offspring from diabetic mothers, cardiovascular alterations, including hypertension, are also part of lifelong consequences of in-utero exposure to increased glucose concentrations. This review examines the epidemiologic and mechanistic issues involved in the developmental programming of long-term consequences in offspring of diabetic mothers, with a particular emphasis on the renal and vascular mechanisms of hypertension. The factors of increased incidence of T2DM and of obesity in adults born after exposure to diabetes during pregnancy are also discussed, as evidence is accumulating that a vicious circle involving lifelong consequences of diabetes in pregnancy in offspring contributes to the current worldwide epidemic of T2DM.
Adolescent, Adult, Child, Child, Preschool, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology, Female, Humans, Hyperglycemia/complications, Hypertension/etiology, Insulin Resistance, Obesity/etiology, Pregnancy, Pregnancy in Diabetics, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects, Young Adult
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