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Physiological function of PARbZip circadian clock-controlled transcription factors.
Annals of Medicine
Publication types: Journal Article ; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ; Review
PARbZip proteins (proline and acidic amino acid-rich basic leucine zipper) represent a subfamily of circadian transcription factors belonging to the bZip family. They are transcriptionally controlled by the circadian molecular oscillator and are suspected to accomplish output functions of the clock. In turn, PARbZip proteins control expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in metabolism, but also expression of transcription factors which control the expression of these enzymes. For example, these transcription factors control vitamin B6 metabolism, which influences neurotransmitter homeostasis in the brain, and loss of PARbZip function leads to spontaneous and sound-induced epilepsy that are frequently lethal. In liver, kidney, and small intestine, PAR bZip transcription factors regulate phase I, II, and III detoxifying enzymes in addition to the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), one of the principal sensors of xenobiotics. Indeed, knockout mice for the three PARbZip transcription factors are deficient in xenobiotic detoxification and display high morbidity, high mortality, and accelerated aging. Finally, less than 20% of these animals reach an age of 1 year. Accumulated evidences suggest that PARbZip transcription factors play a role of relay, coupling circadian metabolism of xenobiotic and probably endobiotic substances to the core clock circuitry of local circadian oscillators.
Animals, Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/physiology, Circadian Rhythm/physiology, Dimerization, Gene Expression/physiology, Humans, Metabolic Detoxication, Drug/physiology, Metabolism/physiology, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/physiology, Xenobiotics
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